BY MARILYNN MARCHIONE
THE ASSOCIATED PRESS
A Chinese researcher claims that he helped make the world’s first genetically edited babies — twin girls born this month whose DNA he said he altered with a powerful new tool capable of rewriting the very blueprint of life.
If true, it would be a profound leap of science and ethics.
A U.S. scientist said he took part in the work in China, but this kind of gene editing is banned in the United States because the DNA changes can pass to future generations and it risks harming other genes.
Many mainstream scientists think it’s too unsafe to try, and some denounced the Chinese report as human experimentation.
The researcher, He Jiankui of Shenzhen, said he altered embryos for seven couples during fertility treatments, with one pregnancy resulting thus far. He said his goal was not to cure or prevent an inherited disease, but to try to bestow a trait that few people naturally have — an ability to resist possible future infection with HIV, the AIDS virus.
He said the parents involved declined to be identified or interviewed, and he would not say where they live or where the work was done.
BY LISA SCHONHAAR
Every day, millions of cells in our bodies “kill” themselves and are quickly removed.
While the mechanism may sound dramatic, it’s for our own good. The process ensures that potentially harmful cells destroy themselves and protects us from diseases.
Cancer cells, however, can protect themselves from self-destruction by ignoring our immune system’s cell-death signals — and that’s precisely what makes them so dangerous.
BY ANTONIO REGALADO
MIT TECHNOLOGY REVIEW
In the wild uproar around an experiment in China that claimed to have created twin girls whose genes were altered to protect them from HIV, there’s something worth knowing—research to improve the next generation of humans is happening in the US, too.
In fact, it’s about to happen at Harvard University.
BY CATHLEEN O’GRADY
If you have ADHD, chances are higher that your siblings do, too. Estimates differ as to how strong the connection is, but the arrows point in the same direction: genetics helps determine someone’s risk for ADHD.
BY ADRIENNE LAFRANCE
History is filthy with stories of pest control gone terribly, terribly wrong. Consider, for example, the infamous tale of how the mongoose got to the Hawaiian Islands. The sleek carnivore was imported in the 1880s as part of a plan by the sugar industry to subdue the rats that wouldn’t stop gnawing through stalks of sugar cane. Mongoose do enjoy a tasty rat supper, when the opportunity presents itself, but there was a problem: Rats are active at night, while mongoose are active during the day. So instead of decimating the rat population, the mongoose came to Hawaii and feasted on native birds and their eggs. Continue Reading →
BY ERIC ABENT
Those of you who survived the roarin’ 1990s will almost certainly remember Dolly the Sheep, who was created from a single adult cell that was combined with an egg cell that had been stripped of its DNA. In other words, Dolly was a clone. Dolly was all over the news when she was born in 1996, but soon after, she started to suffer from health problems, with many people assuming that she was facing these issues because she was a clone. A new study of 13 cloned sheep, including four from the same cell line as Dolly, is showing that may not actually be the case. While Dolly was plagued early on by problems like osteoarthritis and eventually had to be put down in 2003 because of a tumors in her lungs, the clones studied here seem to be aging without many problems.
Though the study, which was led by developmental biologist Kevin Sinclair and a team of scientists from the University in Nottingham in England, says that it observed “no clinical signs of degenerative joint disease apart from mild, or in one case moderate, osteoarthritis in some animals,” it also states that somatic-cell nuclear transfer (the process by which the sheep were cloned) has “no obvious detrimental long-term health effects.”
This is pretty big news, as the health problems Dolly experienced brought into question the overall healthiness of cloned animals. Continue Reading →
BY NICKY WOOLF
A team of Chinese scientists will be the first in the world to apply the revolutionary gene-editing technique known as Crispr on human subjects. Led by Lu You, an oncologist at Sichuan University’s West China hospital in Chengdu, China, the team plan to start testing cells modified with Crispr on patients with lung cancer in August, according to the journal Nature. Crispr is a game-changer in bioscience; a groundbreaking technique which can find, cut out and replace specific parts of DNA using a specially programmed enzyme named Cas9. Its ramifications are next to endless, from changing the color of mouse fur to designing malaria-free mosquitoes and pest-resistant crops to correcting a wide swath of genetic diseases like sickle-cell anaemia in humans. The concept of editing human DNA has often been controversial. Continue Reading →
BY RICK FALKVINGE
PRIVATE INTERNET ACCESS
Since 1975, Sweden has taken a DNA sample from all newborns for medical research purposes, and asked parents’ consent to do so for this research purpose. This means that over time, Sweden has built the world’s most comprehensive DNA database over everybody under 43 years of age. But now, politicians are considering opening up this research-only DNA database to law enforcement and private insurance companies. It was a treasure to the scientific community, at the same time as it held enormous privacy risks that were not foreseen at the time. Scientists desired to study Phenylketonuria (PKU), a hereditary metabolism deficiency that, among other things, turns the common diet-soda-sweetener aspartame into a lethal poison. Continue Reading →
BY IAM SAMPLE
Two men with progressive blindness have regained some of their vision after taking part in the first clinical trial of a gene therapy for the condition. The men were among six patients to have experimental treatment for a rare, inherited, disorder called choroideremia, which steadily destroys eyesight and leaves people blind in middle age. After therapy to correct a faulty gene, the men could read two to four more lines on an optician’s sight chart, a dramatic improvement that has held since the doctors treated them. One man was treated more than two years ago. The other four patients, who had less advanced disease and good eyesight before the trial, had better night vision after the therapy. Continue Reading →